A horseshoe vortex cloud photographed at KVIS on the 1/11/2016. A rare seldom-seen cloud formed by adiabatic cooling along the axis of a curved short-lived spinning vortex of air

**Readings in Physics**

- Errors Are Not Mistakes. [
__pdf__] - Error Propagation. [
__pdf__] - The Motion of Falling Bodies. [
__pdf__] [__Language Questions__] - Projectile Motion. [
__pdf__] [__Questions__] - Banking, Leaning and Conical Swings. [
__pdf__] - Of Schoolmen and a Flat Earth. [
__pdf__] [__Language Questions__] - Centre of Mass. [
__pdf__] - Damage in collisions. [
__pdf__] [__Language Questions__] - Bernoulli's Equation. [
__pdf__] - Air Pressure as the Rate of Change of Momentum. [
__pdf__] - Horsepower and Steam. [
__pdf__] [__Language Questions__] - Stokes' law and Laminar Flow. [
__pdf__] - Black Body Radiation. [
__pdf__] [__Language Questions__] - Heat Loss and Personal Experience. [
__pdf__] - Convection and Heat Transfer in the Atmosphere.[
__pdf__] [__Language Questions__] - Adiabatic Cooling in the Atmosphere. [
__pdf__] [__Language Questions__] - Hybrid Contrails. [
__pdf__] - What Did Carnot Do? [
__pdf__] - Aperture Diffraction Patterns. [
__pdf__] - Diffraction Coronae. [
__pdf__] - Fogged Lenses and Pollen Coronae. [
__pdf__] - Wave Motion 1. [
__pdf__] - Internal Waves. [
__pdf__] [__Language Questions__] - Haidinger's Brushes. [
__pdf__] [__Language Questions__] - Rattlebacks [
__pdf__] [__Language Questions__] - Visual Delay [
__pdf]__ - Radiation Matters [pdf]
- Misconceptions in Physics [
__pdf__] [__Appendix__]

**Demonstrations in Physics**

- Digital Errors [
__pdf__] - Centre of Mass [
__pdf__] - Triangle 1: Centre of Mass [
__pdf__] - Triangle 2: Equilibrium [
__pdf__] - Triangle 3: Motion of the c.m. [
__pdf__] [__Media__] - Constant Acceleration [
__pdf__] [__cmbl__] - Free Fall with Recorded Sound [
__pdf__] - Free Fall with Video Analysis [
__pdf__] - Free Fall with Air Resistance [
__pdf__] - The Kinematics of a Bouncing Ball [
__pdf__] - Friction [
__pdf__] - Skid Distance [
__pdf__] - Work and KE: Impulse and Momentum [
__pdf__] - Impulse and Momentum [
__pdf__] - Simple Pendulums [
__pdf__] - SHM Damped by Friction [
__pdf__] - SHM Damped by Viscous Drag [
__pdf__] - SHM Damped by Hysteresis [
__pdf__] - Drag in Turbulent Flow [
__pdf__] - A Physical Pendulum [pdf]
- Surface Tension [
__pdf__] - A Model Odometer [
__pdf__] - Centripetal Force [
__pdf__] - Torque [
__pdf__] - Rolling Resistance [
__pdf__] - The Bernoulli Effect [
__pdf__] [__Graphic__] - Density Invariant Properties of Solutions [
__pdf__] - Heat Transfer by Convection [
__pdf__] - Thermal Conductivity [
__pdf__] - Planck's Black Body Relationship [pdf]
- Thermal Expansion of Water [
__pdf__] - An Elementary Heat Engine [
__pdf__] - Viscosity from First Principles [
__pdf__] - Manometers and Siphons [
__pdf__] - Air Pressure [
__pdf__] - Gas Law Demonstrations [
__pdf__] - Adiabatic Cooling and Heating [
__pdf__] - The Mass of a Rubber Band [
__pdf__] - Beats: Demonstrations with a Cup and a Weighted Bowl [
__pdf__] - Beats: A Demonstration with Rubber Bands [
__pdf__] - Resonance [
__pdf__] - A Singing Pipe [
__pdf__] - Resonance: A Demonstration with Wine Glasses [
__pdf__] - Speed of Sound in Air versus Temperature [
__pdf__] - Decibel and Intensity Scales [
__pdf__] - Helmholtz Resonance [
__pdf__] - A Model Eye [
__pdf__] - Capacitance [
__pdf__] - Central Limit Theorem [
__pdf__]

**Data in Physics**

- Area, Volume and Density with Measured Values. [
__pdf__] - Reaction Time. [
__pdf__] [__R____eaction Time Data for M4__] - A Cart on a Ramp [
__pdf__] [__Analysis__] - Vertical Acceleration of a Centre of Mass. [
__pdf__] - A Simple Pendulum and Random Errors. [
__pdf__] - Hand-shake Test. [
__pdf__] - Curve Fitting and Power Law Relationships. [
__pdf__] [__Questions__] - Force Probe Calibration. [
__pdf__] - Work and Kinetic Energy. [
__pdf__] [__Analysis__] - Determination of Specific and Latent Heats. [
__pdf__] - Transfer of Heat by Convection. [
__pdf__] - A Bernoulli Effect Investigation. [
__pdf__] - Pressure and Density. [
__pdf__] - A Physical Pendulum 1. [
__pdf__] - A Physical Pendulum 2. [
__pdf__] - Rotational Motion. [
__pdf__] [__Analysis__] - The Speed of Waves on a Tensioned String. [
__pdf__] - Coefficients of Restitution. [
__pdf__] - Ringing Rods and Pipes. [
__pdf__] - Rolling Resistance. [
__pdf__]

**Points to Ponder**

- Friction [Questions]
- Centre of Mass [
__Questions__] - Buoyancy [
__Questions__] - Torque [
__Questions__] - Moments of Inertia [
__Questions__] - Refraction and Reflection [
__Questions__] - Mirrors and Lenses [
__Questions__] - Diffraction [
__Questions__] - Convection [
__Questions__] - Isothermal and Adiabatic Processes [
__Questions__] [__Answers__] - Helmholtz Resonance [
__Questions__] - An Investigation of Resonance [
__Questions__]