A horseshoe vortex cloud photographed at KVIS on the 1/11/2016. A rare seldom-seen cloud formed by adiabatic cooling along the axis of a curved short-lived spinning vortex of air

Readings in Physics

  1. Errors Are Not Mistakes. [pdf]
  2. Error Propagation. [pdf]
  3. The Motion of Falling Bodies. [pdf] [Language Questions]
  4. Projectile Motion. [pdf] [Questions]
  5. Banking, Leaning and Conical Swings. [pdf]
  6. Of Schoolmen and a Flat Earth. [pdf] [Language Questions]
  7. Centre of Mass. [pdf]
  8. Damage in collisions. [pdf] [Language Questions]
  9. Bernoulli's Equation. [pdf]
  10. Air Pressure as the Rate of Change of Momentum. [pdf]
  11. Horsepower and Steam. [pdf] [Language Questions]
  12. Stokes' law and Laminar Flow. [pdf]
  13. Black Body Radiation. [pdf] [Language Questions]
  14. Heat Loss and Personal Experience. [pdf]
  15. Convection and Heat Transfer in the Atmosphere.[pdf] [Language Questions]
  16. Adiabatic Cooling in the Atmosphere. [pdf] [Language Questions]
  17. Hybrid Contrails. [pdf]
  18. What Did Carnot Do? [pdf]
  19. Aperture Diffraction Patterns. [pdf]
  20. Diffraction Coronae. [pdf]
  21. Fogged Lenses and Pollen Coronae. [pdf]
  22. Wave Motion 1. [pdf]
  23. Internal Waves. [pdf] [Language Questions]
  24. Haidinger's Brushes. [pdf] [Language Questions]
  25. Rattlebacks [pdf] [Language Questions]
  26. Visual Delay [pdf]
  27. Radiation Matters [pdf]
  28. Misconceptions in Physics [pdf] [Appendix]

Demonstrations in Physics

  1. Digital Errors [pdf]
  2. Centre of Mass [pdf]
  3. Triangle 1: Centre of Mass [pdf]
  4. Triangle 2: Equilibrium [pdf]
  5. Triangle 3: Motion of the c.m. [pdf] [Media]
  6. Constant Acceleration [pdf] [cmbl]
  7. Free Fall with Recorded Sound [pdf]
  8. Free Fall with Video Analysis [pdf
  9. Free Fall with Air Resistance [pdf]
  10. The Kinematics of a Bouncing Ball [pdf]
  11. Friction [pdf]
  12. Skid Distance [pdf]
  13. Work and KE: Impulse and Momentum [pdf]
  14. Impulse and Momentum [pdf]
  15. Simple Pendulums [pdf]
  16. SHM Damped by Friction [pdf]
  17. SHM Damped by Viscous Drag [pdf]
  18. SHM Damped by Hysteresis [pdf]
  19. Drag in Turbulent Flow [pdf]
  20. A Physical Pendulum [pdf]
  21. Surface Tension [pdf]
  22. A Model Odometer [pdf]
  23. Centripetal Force [pdf]
  24. Torque [pdf]
  25. Rolling Resistance [pdf]
  26. The Bernoulli Effect [pdf] [Graphic]
  27. Density Invariant Properties of Solutions [pdf]
  28. Heat Transfer by Convection [pdf]
  29. Thermal Conductivity [pdf]
  30. Planck's Black Body Relationship [pdf]
  31. Thermal Expansion of Water [pdf]
  32. An Elementary Heat Engine [pdf]
  33. Viscosity from First Principles [pdf]
  34. Manometers and Siphons [pdf]
  35. ‚ÄčAir Pressure [pdf]
  36. Gas Law Demonstrations [pdf
  37. Adiabatic Cooling and Heating [pdf]
  38. The Mass of a Rubber Band [pdf]
  39. Beats: Demonstrations with a Cup and a Weighted Bowl [pdf]
  40. Beats: A Demonstration with Rubber Bands [pdf]
  41. Resonance [pdf]
  42. A Singing Pipe [pdf]
  43. Resonance: A Demonstration with Wine Glasses [pdf]
  44. Speed of Sound in Air versus Temperature [pdf]
  45. Decibel and Intensity Scales [pdf]
  46. Helmholtz Resonance [pdf]
  47. A Model Eye [pdf]
  48. Capacitance [pdf]
  49. Central Limit Theorem [pdf]

Data in Physics

  1. Area, Volume and Density with Measured Values. [pdf]
  2. Reaction Time. [pdf] [Reaction Time Data for M4]
  3. A Cart on a Ramp [pdf] [Analysis]
  4. Vertical Acceleration of a Centre of Mass. [pdf]
  5. A Simple Pendulum and Random Errors. [pdf]
  6. Hand-shake Test. [pdf]
  7. Curve Fitting and Power Law Relationships. [pdf] [Questions]
  8. Force Probe Calibration. [pdf]
  9. Work and Kinetic Energy. [pdf] [Analysis
  10. Determination of Specific and Latent Heats. [pdf]
  11. Transfer of Heat by Convection. [pdf]
  12. A Bernoulli Effect Investigation. [pdf]
  13. Pressure and Density. [pdf]
  14. A Physical Pendulum 1. [pdf]
  15. A Physical Pendulum 2. [pdf]
  16. Rotational Motion. [pdf] [Analysis]
  17. The Speed of Waves on a Tensioned String. [pdf]
  18. Coefficients of Restitution. [pdf]
  19. Ringing Rods and Pipes. [pdf]
  20. Rolling Resistance. [pdf]

Points to Ponder

  1. Friction [Questions]
  2. Centre of Mass [Questions]
  3. Buoyancy [Questions]
  4. Torque [Questions]
  5. Moments of Inertia [Questions]
  6. Refraction and Reflection [Questions]
  7. Mirrors and Lenses [Questions]
  8. Diffraction [Questions]
  9. Convection [Questions]
  10. Isothermal and Adiabatic Processes [Questions] [Answers]
  11. Helmholtz Resonance [Questions]
  12. An Investigation of Resonance [Questions]